Inside GNSS Media & Research

NOV-DEC 2017

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56 Inside GNSS N O V E M B E R / D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 7 www.insidegnss.com Location Service Provider (LSP) Location-Based Service Provider (LBSP) Anonymizer Additional Shielding mechanisms G NSS solutions are widely spread and currently able to provide excellent navigation perfor- mance under a variety of scenarios, especially with the advent of assisted and cloud GNSS solutions. However, when used indoors and in deep urban canyons, they still suffer from many challenges such as outages of the system due to very low signal powers received indoors or very high positioning errors due to multipath. ere are two main ways to circumvent such problems and they are addressed in the following two sections: using hybrid solutions between GNSS and a typically complementary solu- tion, such as cellular, wireless local area network (WLAN), or inertial sensors, or using purely non-GNSS solutions, which might be desirable, for example, on low-cost mobile devices not support- ing GNSS chipsets. Hybrid-GNSS Localization Hybrid positioning techniques merge GNSS and non-GNSS technologies to provide an accurate position of the user or device. e non-GNSS category typi- cally includes all the terrestrial naviga- tion systems, ranging from cellular to WLAN, and from Ultra Wide Band (UWB) to Inertial Navigation Systems (INS). Non-GNSS positioning signals are typically referred to as Signals of Oppor- tunity (SoO). SoO by definition means any signal which can be used for posi- tioning, but which, unlike GNSS, was not initially designed with positioning purposes in mind (e.g., cellular, WLAN, UWB, etc,). A debatable category is the category of 5G cellular signals, which currently are being designed in such a Finding the right balance between sufficient accuracy for a Location Based Service and preserving user location privacy to the extent desired by the users is one of the challenges in modern GNSS localization. This article (the second in a series) aims to shed new light on similar location privacy challenges that appear when using hybrid-GNSS or non-GNSS localization technologies. WORKING PAPERS Location Privacy Challenges and Solutions Part 2: Hybrid- and Non-GNSS Localization ELENA SIMONA LOHAN TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY PHILIPP RICHTER TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY VICENTE LUCAS-SABOLA UNIVERSITAT AUTONOMA DE BARCELONA JOSÉ A. LÓPEZ-SALCEDO UNIVERSITAT AUTONOMA DE BARCELONA GONZALO SECO-GRANADOS UNIVERSITAT AUTONOMA DE BARCELONA HELENA LEPPÄKOSKI TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ELENA SERNA SANTIAGO TAMPERE UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

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