Inside GNSS Media & Research

NOV-DEC 2018

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36 InsideGNSS N O V E M B E R / D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 8 www.insidegnss.com due to its orography, different solu- tions were tested (including a hybrid combining benefits from LPV and R NP AR). This was successfully flown in June 2018. • March 2018: GNSS approaches suc- cessfully validated over Larnaca and Paphos airports in Cyprus despite bad weather, further demonstrating the safety benefits of GNSS vertical guid- ance in adverse weather conditions. e procedures designed and vali- dated (some of which are already pub- lished in national AIPs) demonstrated the benefits of having EGNOS-based approaches in terms of vertical guidance provided by GNSS, i.e., lower minima in comparison to ground based navigation aids. ese results are very important for improving safety of approaches at air- ports. More details are available from the BLUE-MED por ta l (see Additiona l Resources). Training Activity The training activity is considered an essential enabler for PBN implementa- tion. Specific trainings were delivered on airspace and flight procedure design topics for GNSS. Dedicated workshops were organized during project execu- tion for airspace design task leaders and project members to discuss design prin- ciples. This act iv it y represents a va lid response to ICAO EANPG (European Air Navigation Planning Group, i.e. the governing body of ICAO in the EUR Region) findings and recommendations. In particular, we reference the identified scarcity of qualified personnel in the areas of PANS-OPS procedures, design, and oversight, and the ensuing invita- tion to States to cooperate and share f l i g ht pr o c e du re design resources. Fu r t her t ra i n- ing was also deliv- ered to ATCOs for t h e o p e r a t i o n a l m a n a g e m e n t o f R N P A P C H a nd to technical staff to let them know the principles of PBN and GNSS monitoring. GNSS Monitoring Concept Recommendation 6/6 of the 12th ICAO Air Navigation Conference states the fol- lowing guidelines concerning the use of multiple GNSS constellations. Recommendation 6/6 of the 12th ICAO Air Navigation Conference at States, when defining their air navi- gation strategic plans and introducing new operations: a) take advantage of the improved robustness and availability made pos- sible by the existence of multiple global navigation satellite system constella- tions and associated augmentation systems; b) publish information specifying the global navigation satellite system ele- ments that are approved for use in their airspace; c) adopt a performance-based approach with regard to the use of global naviga- tion satellite system (GNSS), and avoid prohibiting the use of GNSS elements that are compliant with applicable ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices; d) carefully consider and assess if man- dates for equipage or use of any partic- ular global navigation satellite system core constellation or augmentation system are necessary or appropriate; at aircra operators: e) consider equipage with GNSS receivers able to process more than one constel- lation in order to gain the benefits associated with the support of more demanding operations. Specifically, b) notes the need for publishing GNSS elements officially approved to be used. Of course, the implementation of this directive requires an accurate knowledge of GNSS perfor- mance in order to guarantee a rigorous validation process of the chosen posi- tioning service, as stated in ICAO Doc. 9849, quoted below. From ICAO Doc-9849 7.8.1.2 – e Twelh Air Navigation Con- ference (AN-Conf/12) recommended that, for future use of multiple constellations, States publish information specifying the GNSS elements that are approved for use in their airspace. In order to do this, States would need a clear understanding of the performance of these signals with respect to related standards (such as SARPs and/ or specific local requirements) enabling their operational use in combination with augmentation systems used in a specific phase of flight. erefore, States may need an assessment of the performances of GNSS core constellations to decide on their approval status within their respec- tive flight information regions (FIRs). […] Fur t hermore, ICAO SAR Ps (see Additional Resources) also recommends that every State approving GNSS-based f light procedures should monitor and record relevant GNSS data in order to monitor the integrity of positioning sig- nals and support any activity of accident/ incident investigation. Additionally, the use of long-term statistics based on the analysis of ad-hoc metrics (referred to as key performance indicators, KPIs) is essential to carry out periodic checks on GNSS performance within the service area of interest. Therefore, the GNSS monitoring concept, as reported in the ICAO GNSS Manual (again, please see Additional Resources), covers the following use cases, see Figure 2. 1. GNSS performance assessment is a periodic off-line activity aimed at demonstrating the signal-in-space (SiS) conformance to ICAO Annex 10 relevant requirements (see Addi- tional Resources). 2. GNSS operational status monitor- ing provides real-time information to technical staff and ATC services on the current operational status of GNSS services. RF interference (RFI) monitoring is typically part of this activity and monitors the GNSS spectrum providing timely warnings in case of potentially critical RFIs. 3. GNSS data recording is a legal record- ing service of GNSS data for post- incident/accident investigations. BLUEGNSS FIGURE 2 GNSS monitoring concept (ICAO Doc-9849)

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