Inside GNSS Media & Research

NOV-DEC 2017

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40 Inside GNSS N O V E M B E R / D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 7 T here are many good reasons for getting excited about highly automated vehicles, or HAVs, which is t he acrony m used by t he National Highway Traffic Safety Admin- istration (NHTSA). HAVs can make driving more fuel- and time-efficient. They can significantly reduce traffic congestion and emissions by driving a precise speed, minimizing lane changes, and maintaining an exact distance to neighboring cars. ey can also increase accessibility and mobility for disabled and elderly persons. Sharing an HAV instead of owning is projected to dramatically reduce a household's yearly transportation bud- get, which currently ranges between approximately $8,000 and $11,000 per car. HAVs carry promises not only in improved road mobility, and accessibil- ity, but also in producing architectural and societal changes that can make mass parking spaces and personal car owner- ship obsolete in urban areas. Above all, HAVs can help improve road safety by preventing car accidents that cause more than 30,000 deaths/year in the United States alone, cost approximately $230 billion/year in medical and work loss costs, and are caused by humans 90% of the time. Promising new technology has recently emerged to increase the level of safety and autonomy in driving, including lane and distance keeping assist systems, automatic braking systems, and even highway auto-drive systems. Each of these technologies brings cars closer to the ultimate goal of fully autonomous operation. While it is still unclear, if and when safe, driverless cars will be released on the mass market, a comparison with the development of aircraft autopilot systems can provide valuable insight. This review article contains several Additional Resources at the end, including key references to support its findings. The article investigates a path towards ensuring safety for "self-driving" or "autonomous" cars by leveraging prior work in aviation. It focuses on navigation, or localization, which is a key aspect of automated operation. HAV SAFET Y MATHIEU JOERGER UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA. MATTHEW SPENKO ILLINOIS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Towards Navigation Safety for Autonomous Cars Emerging technologies are bringing cars closer to the ultimate goal of fully autonomous operation. Shutterstock

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