Inside GNSS Media & Research

NOV-DEC 2017

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Page 56 of 67 N O V E M B E R / D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 7 Inside GNSS 57 way to also support positioning, and thus they no longer belong to the SoO category. We will briefly discuss 5G posi- tioning in the next section. Another arguable category is the cat- egory of Internet of ings (IoT) and the related IoT positioning. e IoT concept is based on the connection of sensing devices to the internet, with the objec- tive of using the information provided by the sensors (i.e., positioning infor- mation) in different applications, such as LBS or transportation and logistics. IoT positioning sensor networks can be divided into homogenous or hetero- geneous. The heterogeneity definition deserves a discussion by itself, but in here we refer to this heterogeneity as fol- lows. In a homogenous IoT architecture, the network is only formed by either GNSS or non-GNSS sensors. In a hetero- geneous IoT architecture, the network is formed by both GNSS and non-GNSS sensors, whose information is then pro- cessed by a control unit applying hybrid positioning techniques. Hybrid (or het- erogeneous) IoT positioning is discussed in this section. Homogeneous IoT posi- tioning along with modern navigation solutions purely based on non-GNSS systems are discussed in the next sec- tion. e rest of this section focuses on localization techniques which rely on both GNSS and non-GNSS systems. e fact that GNSS and non-GNSS a re c omple m e nt a r y t e c h no lo g i e s enables a ubiquitous localization in a wide range of working cases, which may not be feasible by just using one of these technologies. For instance, GNSS localization systems offer an excellent positioning reliability and accuracy if the working conditions are adequate enough (i.e., outdoors). Nevertheless, their performance in harsh environ- ments (i.e., indoor, urban areas) may be compromised due to the attenuation of the signal power or even the loss of signal, the multipath propagation, the presence of interferences such as jam- ming and spoofing, etc. Conversely, non-GNSS technologies typically pro- vide reliable positioning in indoor and urban scenarios. For example, cellular systems, from second generation (2G) to the emerging fifth generation (5G) are specifically designed for reliable and continuous communications in popu- lated areas, such as indoors and urban, and their signals are able to penetrate buildings and walls, thus making them suitable alternatives for situations where GNSS fails. Similarly, WLAN networks are widely spread indoors nowadays, and their high density and moderate propagation ranges (e.g., a few tens of meters indoors to a few hundred meters outdoors) make them another excel- lent candidate for offering localization solutions complementar y to GNSS. erefore, the simultaneous use of such technologies by means of hybrid posi- tioning techniques improves the accu- racy, fault tolerance, and availability of the localization service both outdoors and indoors. ere are different combinations of hybrid GNSS and non-GNSS, and these 2018 April 23–26, 2018 Hyatt Regency Monterey Monterey, California S A V E T H E D A T E ! IEEE/ION Position Location and Navigation Symposium (PLANS)

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