Inside GNSS Media & Research

NOV-DEC 2017

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www.insidegnss.com N O V E M B E R / D E C E M B E R 2 0 1 7 Inside GNSS 63 exist. In general, the more information and context an adversary can link to the location data, the less effective these privacy-preserving methods will be. According to the protection goal, these context components are typically user location, temporal information, and user identity. Some privacy-preserving meth- ods may need to be combined in order to achieve full user protection. Conclusions In comparison to modern GNSS solu- tions, such as Cloud and Assisted GNSS, where privacy of localization studies have only recently emerged, the location privacy in hybrid- and non-GNSS local- ization systems is a multi-faceted issue where many solutions have already been studied and published in the research community. These interdisciplinary efforts need to be further consolidated to design privacy-preserving IoT local- ization technologies and services. ere is a clear inherent tradeoff between the granularity of defining the location accuracy by a certain Location Service Provider and the level of location pri- vacy that the user can reach. Herein we have summarized some of the existing solutions for preserving the user's loca- tion privacy. We have also pointed out that the research on location privacy is a worthy endeavor for future position- ing systems targeting sub-meter level accuracies. Acknowledgements e authors express their warm thanks to the Academy of Finland (Project 303576) for its financial support for this research work. Manufacturers When the authors mention vendors who are developing ultra-low power GNSS modules aimed for IoT mass-market devices, with the objective of provid- ing high accuracy with low-powered sensors, they are describing products offered by u-blox, alwil, Switzerland, and Telit, London. Additional Resources [1] Chen L., S. Thombre, K. Jarvinen, E S Lohan, A.K. Alen-Savikko, H. Leppäkoski, M. Z. H., Bhuiyan, S. Bu- Pasha, G. N. Ferrara, and H. Honkala, "Robustness, Security and Privacy in Location-Based Services for Future IoT: A Survey," IEEE Access, 2017 [2] Dammann, A., R. Raulefs, and S. Zhang, S.,"On Prospects of Positioning in 5G," 2015 IEEE Interna- tional Conference on Communication Workshop (ICCW), London, pp. 1207-1213, 2015 [3] Gschwandtner, F. and C. K. Schindhelm, "Spon- taneous Privacy-Friendly Indoor Positioning using Enhanced WLAN Beacons," International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), 2011 [4] Lee, J. H. and R.M. Buehrer, "Security Issues for Position Location," chapter in Wiley Handbook for Position Location, 2011 [5] Koivisto, M., Costa, M., Werner, J., Heiska, K., Tal- vitie, J., Leppänen, K., Koivunen, V., and Valkama, M., "Joint Device Positioning and Clock Synchroniza- tion in 5G Ultra-Dense Networks," IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Volume: 16, Issue: 5, pp. 2866-2881, May 2017. [6] Li, H., L. Sun, H. Zhu, X. Lu, and X. Cheng, "Achiev- ing Privacy Preservation in WiFi Fingerprint-Based Localization," IEEE Conference INFOCOM, 2014 [7] Lohan, E. S., P. Richter, V. Lucas-Sabola, J. Lopez- Salcedo, G. Seco-Granados, H. Leppakoski, and E. Serna Santiago, "Location Privacy Challenges and Solutions – Part 1. GNSS Localization," Inside GNSS, September/October 2017. [8] Lohan, E. S. et alia, "Open-Source Software and Measurement Data Available at TLTPOS Group, TUT," http://www.cs.tut.fi/tlt/pos/Software.htm, accessed June 20, 2017 [9] Peral-Rosado, J. A., R. Estatuet, J.A. Lopez-Salce- do, G. Seco-Granados, G. Chaloupka, L. Ries, and J.A. Garcia Molina, "Evaluation of Hybrid Positioning Scenarios for Autonomous Vehicle Applications," Proceedings of ION GNSS+, September 2017 [10] Pirzada, N. M. Y., F. S. M. F Hassan, and M. A. Khan, "Device-Free Localization Technique for Indoor Detection and Tracking of Human Body: A Survey," Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Volume: 129, pp. 422–429, 2014 [11] Ray, B., LoRa Localization, https://www.link- labs.com/blog/lora-localization , Blog entry, June 2016 [12] Sark, V., E. Grass, and J. G. Teran, "Efficient Posi- tioning Method Applicable in Dense Multi User Scenarios," IEEE 802.11 White Paper, http://www. ieee802.org/11/Reports/tgaz_update.htm , 2016 [13] S er na Santiago, E., Passive Positioning Approaches in the future positioning systems, MSc. Thesis, Tampere University of Technology, May 2017 [14] Zhang, Z., Z. Tian, M. Zhou, Z. Li, Z. Wu, and Y. Jin, "WIPP: Wi-Fi Compass for Indoor Passive Posi- tioning with Decimeter Accuracy," MDPI Applied Sciences, Volume: 6, p. 108, 2016 Authors Elena Simona Lohan received an M.Sc. degree in Electrical Engineering from Polytechnics University of Bucharest, Romania, in 1997, a D.E.A. degree (French equivalent of master) in Econometrics, at Ecole Polytechnique, Paris, France, in 1998, and a Ph.D. degree in Telecommunica- tions from Tampere University of Technology (TUT ), Finland, in 2003. Dr. Lohan is now an Associate Prof. at the Labora- tory of Electronics and Com- munication Engineering (ELT ) at TUT and a Visiting Professor at Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. She is leading a research group on Signal process- ing for wireless positioning. She is a co-editor of the first book on Galileo satellite system (Springer "Galileo Positioning Technology"), co-editor of the 2017 Springer book on "Multi-technology Position- ing", and author or co-author in more than 160 international peer-reviewed publications. Her cur- rent research interests include wireless location techniques, Location Based Services and privacy- aware positioning solutions. Philipp Richter holds a doc- toral degree in telecommuni- cations and works currently as a post-doctoral researcher in the Wireless Communication and Positioning group at the Tampere University of Tech- n o l o g y. B e fo re, h e w a s a research associate at the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated Circuits IIS from 2009-2012. His main research interests are in signal processing, Bayesian inference and machine learning applied to robust multi-sensor data fusion, positioning and tracking. Vicente Lucas-Sabola was born in Barcelona, Spain, in 1990. He received the B.Sc. in telecommunication systems engineering in 2015 and the M.Sc. in telecommunication engineering in 2017, both from Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB). Since 2015 he is involved in the development of a Cloud GNSS receiver, a project funded by the European Space Agency (ESA). Since 2017 he is pursuing the PhD at the SPCOMNAV group, dealing with topics related to Cloud GNSS signal processing for Internet of Things (IoT ) appli- cations. Prof. Jose Lopez-Salcedo received the Ph.D. degree in Telecommunications Engi- n e e r i n g f ro m U n i ve r s i t a t Po l i te c n i c a d e C a t a l u ny a (UPC), Barcelona, Spain, in 2007. He is Associate Professor at the Department of Tele- communications and Systems Engineering, Univer- sitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), where he is also the Coordinator of the telecommunication engineering studies. Jose Salcedo has been involved in more than 30 research projects for pri- vate industry and public administrations on topics related to signal processing, wireless communica- tions and global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). He has held several visiting appointments at the University of California Irvine, the Coordi-

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