Inside GNSS Media & Research

MAR-APR 2018

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58 InsideGNSS M A R C H / A P R I L 2 0 1 8 www.insidegnss.com E ver y field application has its own operational conditions and resu lt ing re quirements wit h respect to accuracy, availability, and continuity for systems that provide position, velocity, and time (PVT) measurements. For example, Global Satellite Navigation Systems (GNSS) found application for certain approach procedures in commercial aviation due to the advent of Satellite Based Aug- mentation Systems (SBAS) that pro- vide additional integrity information to GNSS receivers. GNSS reception environments for aircra are nominally clear-sky conditions and the combina- tion of GNSS, SBAS, and advanced processing techniques like Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring (RAIM) yields the required compliance for probabilities of detecting malfunc- tions and times-to-alert. Providing absolute, three-dimen- sional positions on Earth together with well-proven and cost-efficient receiver technologies predestines GNSS equip- ment to enter the emerging markets of land-based users such as autonomous vehicles and the railway industry. How- ever, since the operational conditions of these applications differ dramatically from those present in the aviation world, PVT measurements with integrity based on GNSS as previously developed can- not be translated directly to land-based users. is article presents the scope and an application example of the Integ- rity for Navigation Land Users (INLU) research study as part of the European Space Agency's Technology Research Program (see Additional Resources, J. Wendel et alia (2016a)) that develops techniques to provide PVT solutions to land-based users within defined integ- rity bounds. The environments in which land- based users move impose reception limitations on GNSS receivers. In cities, the GNSS signals are frequently blocked and reflected by buildings, structures, and other traffic, for example. e same is true for railway applications. Here, GNSS blockages arise from features ranging from shunting yards over rail- Integrity for Navigation Land Users (INLU) addresses the difficult task of adapting air-based position integrity solutions to land-based activities such as vehicle and rail travel. An end-to-end simulation is presented using the Positioning and Integrity Performance Evaluator (PIPE). The simulation includes side by side comparison of a vehicle path in the presence of spoofing as evaluated by the authors' Generalized Pseudo Bayesian 1 (GPB1) algorithm and a snapshot least squares algorithm. FRANK M. SCHUBERT AIRBUS DEFENCE AND SPACE IN MUNICH, GERMANY JAN WENDEL AIRBUS DEFENCE AND SPACE IN MUNICH, GERMANY IOANA GULIE AIRBUS DEFENCE AND SPACE IN MUNICH, GERMANY RUDOLF KOHL AIRBUS DEFENCE AND SPACE IN MUNICH, GERMANY RIGAS IOANNIDES EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY, ESTEC CHRISTIAN WULLEMS EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY, ESTEC WORKING PAPERS Navigation Integrity for Land Users Robust Positioning in Challenging Environments

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