Inside GNSS Media & Research

MAY-JUN 2018

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Page 52 of 67 M A Y / J U N E 2 0 1 8 Inside GNSS 53 I n recent years, modern society has moved towards the use of emerg- ing technologies in order to facili- tate day-to-day decisions while opti- mizing resources in an automatic way. is is the case of the Internet of ings (IoT), where physical objects such as bikes, wearables, urban furniture, etc., are connected within a network with the mission of providing some kind of information (e.g., temperature, humid- ity, lighting, etc.) that can later be used in different applications and services (see Additional Resources, D. Singh et alia). As an example, a smart city uses the information gathered by multiple IoT sensors distributed in an urban area to optimize the efficiency of city opera- tions: waste management, smart light- ing, traffic congestion, etc. e goal is to make cities more sustainable places and to manage them in a more effective, effi- cient, and social manner. In this context, positioning information remains a key component for a wide range of applica- tions that use multi-sensor data for real time sensing or crowd-sourcing, among others (M. Batty et alia). In general, IoT sensors must cope with many key challenges: identifica- tion, information privacy, securit y, interoperability, low-cost, etc. (R. Khan et alia). More importantly, even though semiconductor technologies are evolv- ing by leaps and bounds, one of the main challenges IoT positioning sensors must face is power consumption. e battery life of a sensor is expected to last as long as possible (on the order of 10 years) in order to minimize human maintenance and hence reduce costs. To achieve a longer batter y lifetime, IoT sensors usually work with short duty cycles: they remain in sleep mode, where the power consumption is significantly low (on the order of µA), and only swap to active mode (power consumption on the order of mA) when they sense data and communicate it to a central node. IoT positioning sensors oen use the Global The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) has considerably increased the number of services and applications that require positioning information. In this sense, IoT positioning sensors usually obtain and deliver their position to a central node where it is further managed and analyzed by a user or scheduler. Nonetheless, the stringent requirements of low-cost IoT sensors in terms of low power consumption to achieve larger battery lifetime are pushing current technologies to their limits. In this context, we propose a cloud-based Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) solution to deal with the typical constraints faced by IoT sensors by migrating the signal processing tasks from the sensor to cloud servers. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of a cloud- based GNSS approach in energy efficiency, performance, and economic terms. VICENTE LUCAS-SABOLA IEEC-CERES, UNIVERSITAT AUTÒNOMA DE BARCELONA GONZALO SECO-GRANADOS IEEC-CERES, UNIVERSITAT AUTÒNOMA DE BARCELONA JOSÉ A. LÓPEZ-SALCEDO IEEC-CERES, UNIVERSITAT AUTÒNOMA DE BARCELONA JOSÉ A. GARCÍA-MOLINA EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY, ESA/ESTEC WORKING PAPERS GNSS IoT Positioning From Conventional Sensors to a Cloud-Based Solution ESA

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